Intro To Score 8

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data on placement of pollutants (industrial facilities of various branches of farms, about pollution of the air basin, soils, waters and lands heavy metals, radionuclides, mineral fertilizers and pesticides;

V. N. (197 as structural unit of the biosphere the biogeocenosis is offered. Biogeocenoses — the natural educations with a clear boundary consisting of set of living beings (a biocenosis, taking a certain place. For water organisms — it is water, for land organisms — the soil and the atmosphere.

Scales of ecosystems are various: microsystems (for example, a marsh hummock, a tree, the stone covered with a moss or a stub, a pot with a flower, etc.), mesoecosystems (the lake, a bog, a sandy dune, the wood, a meadow, etc.), macroecosystems (the continent, the ocean, etc.). Therefore, there is a peculiar hierarchy macro - meso - and microsystems of different orders.

System approach consists of the following stages: definition of structure of an ecosystem and objects of environment which make impact on it; determination of set of internal communications and communications with environment. In the system analysis use various methods.

Understand undesirable changes of physical, physical and chemical and biological characteristics of air, soils, waters which can adversely influence human life, as environmental pollution a plant, animals necessary for it and cultural property, exhaust or spoil its raw material resources. These negative changes are result of activity of the person. They interrupt or break processes of an exchange and circulation of substances, their assimilation, energy distribution, properties of environment, living conditions of organisms as a result change, efficiency decreases or ecosystems collapse. Directly or indirectly such transformations influence the person through biological resources, waters and products.

On modern representations, an ecosystem as the main structural unit of the biosphere — is the interconnected uniform functional set of live organisms and environments of their dwelling, or balanced community of live organisms and the surrounding lifeless environment. In this definition existence of relationship, interdependence, relationships of cause and effect between biological community and the abiotic environment is emphasized,

Methodological fundamentals of ecology is system approach in researches. On the basis of system approach study properties of high-organized objects, i.e. variety of communications between ecosystem elements, their raznokachestvenost and a taxonomy. Thus it is impossible to forget that ecosystems are in a condition of dynamic balance and are capable to resist to changes of environment.

Observed factors check on mathematical models, Often apply also biological models – ecosystems from the organisms created in laboratories. It is the intermediate stage between natural ecosystems and mathematical models.

Improvement of structure of land use has to be based on the concept of ekologo-economic balance of the territory. At the organization of the territory the balance between anthropogenous load of lands and ability of the territory to natural self-cleaning has to be surely observed. At the organization of rational land use it is necessary to consider ecological impact of agricultural production on land resources.

Modeling – a basis of the scientific analysis of system ecology. Translation process of physical, biochemical, biological ideas of ecosystems in a row of dependences and operation over the received mathematical system is called the system analysis.

Main sources of pollution of an anthropogenous origin: thermal power plants (27%), enterprises black (24%) and color (10,5%) metallurgy, petrochemical industry (15,5%), construction materials (8,1%), chemical industry (1,3%), motor transport (13,3%).